Humayun’s Tomb was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent. It is the Tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India. The Tomb commissioned by Humayun’s first wife and chief consort, Empress Bega Begum(also known as Haji Begum) in 1569-70. It designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and his son, Sayyid Muhammad, Persian architects. It was also the first structure to use red sandstone. This one-of-a-kind garden tomb built mid -16th century in the memory of Mughal Emperor Humayun by his Persia-born first wife, Hazi Begum. Little wonder, the grand scale geometry, restrained decoration, and the symmetrical gardens believed inspiration for the Taj Mahal in Agra. It declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Humayun’s Tomb, located in New Delhi’s Nizamuddin East neighborhood, Hazi Begum, choose not only the Persian architects who built the monument but also the area. The Tomb lies
on the banks of the Yamuna, near to the dargah of famous Sufi Saint of Delhi, Nizamuddin Auliya, who was much revered by the rulers of Delhi, and whose residence, Chilla Nizamuddin
Auliya lies just north-east of the Tomb.
History of Humayun’s Tomb
Humayun, the second Mughal ruler, was the son and successor of Babur. Even though Humayun, a brave and adventurous ruler, he lost several territories to Sher Khan Suri over the ensuing years. Sher Khan Suri occupied the throne of Delhi as well. He took the title of Sher Shah Sur as the ruler of India, including Bengal. But Humayun successfully won back his territories after a few years and set about uniting his Empire after. Sher Shah’s death in 1545. Even though he not counted amongst the greatest Mughal emperors, Humayun ensured that he left behind a rich legacy for his son Akbar. Humayun died in 1556 AD following a fall from stairs. He laid to rest at his palace.
Humayun’s Tomb designed by the Persian architect Mirak Mirza Ghiyas(also referred to as Mirak Ghiyathuddin), who selected by the Empress and brought from Herat (northwest Afghanistan); He had previously designed several buildings in Herat, Bukhara(Now Uzbekistan), and others elsewhere in India. Ghiyas died before the structure completed and then completed by his son, Sayyed Muhammad ibn Mirak Ghiyathuddin. In 1880, after the establishment of the British rule in Delhi, the garden was redesigned to accommodate an English style garden. However, it was restored to the original style in a significant restoration project between 1903 and 1909. The complex and its structures slowly defiled when it used to house the refugees during the 1947 partition of India. After restoration in1993, Humayun’s Tomb was named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, by the Archeological Survey of India(ASI)-Aga Khan Trust for Culture(AKTC).
Structure of Humayun’s Tomb
The structure situated in the center of a 216000m2 square garden complex on a raised 7m high stone platform. The garden is a typical Persia Char Bagh layout, with four ways radiating from the central building dividing the garden into four smaller segments. The pathways may also adorned with water features. The architectural landscaping Style symbolizes the Garden of Paradise, which is according to Quranic beliefs, consists, of four rivers: one of water, one of milk, one of honey, and one of wine. The garden also has houses trees serving a host of purposes like providing shade, producing fruits, flowers, and nurturing birds.
The art of Humayun’s Tomb
The Tomb made by red sandstone with white marble double domes capped with 6m long brass final ending in a crescent. The domes are 42.5 m high. Marble also used in the latticework, Pietra dura floors, and eaves. The height of the Tomb is 47m, and its breadth is 91m. There two double-arched gateways in the entry of the tomb complex. In the center of eastern and northern walls, a barbaric and a hammam located. The tomb complex consists of several buildings, tombs, mosques, and a lodging place. Famous buildings in the complex are Nila Guband, Arab Sarai, and Bu Halima.
The Indira Gandhi International Airport is 15km far from Humayun’s Tomb. You can hail a cab from the airport to easily reach Humayun’s Tomb. Hazrat Nizamuddin Railway station is the closest train station to Humayun’s Tomb, 2.5km away. You can take a walk from Dargah Hazrat Nizamuddin bus stand is only 800 meters away to Humayun’s Tomb or hail an auto to reach. So anyone can easily travel to this beautiful place in these ways.
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